The best way to log traces in iPOPO is to use the logging module from the Python Standad Library. Pelix/iPOPO relies on this module for its own logs, using a module level constant providing a logger with the name of the module, like this:

import logging
_logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

That being said, Pelix/iPOPO provides a utility log service matching the OSGi LogService specification, which logs to and reads traces from the standard Python logging system.

The log service is provided by the pelix.misc.log bundle. It handles LogEntry object keeping track of the log timestamp, source bundle and message. It also registers as a handler to the Python logging system, which means it can also keep track of all traces logged with the logging module.


Once install and started, the pelix.misc.log bundle provides two services:

  • pelix.log: The main log service, which allows to log entries;
  • pelix.log.reader: The log reader service, which gives a read-only access to previous log entries. Those entries can be stored using either the log service or the Python logging system.

Log Service

The log service provides the following method:

class pelix.misc.log.LogServiceInstance(reader, bundle)

Instance of the log service given to a bundle by the factory

  • reader – The Log Reader service
  • bundle – Bundle associated to this instance
log(level, message, exc_info=None, reference=None)

Logs a message, possibly with an exception

  • level – Severity of the message (Python logging level)
  • message – Human readable message
  • exc_info – The exception context (sys.exc_info()), if any
  • reference – The ServiceReference associated to the log

Log Reader Service

The log reader provides the following methods:

class pelix.misc.log.LogReaderService(context, max_entries)

The LogReader service

  • context – The bundle context
  • max_entries – Maximum stored entries

Subscribes a listener to log events.

A log listener is an object providing with a logged method, with the following signature:

def logged(self, log_entry):
    A log entry (LogEntry) has been added to the log service
    # ...
Parameters:listener – A new listener

Returns the logs events kept by the service

Returns:A tuple of log entries

Unsubscribes a listener from log events.

Parameters:listener – The listener to remove

The result of get_log() and the argument to listeners registered with add_log_listener() is a LogEntry object, giving read-only access to the following properties:

class pelix.misc.log.LogEntry(level, message, exception, bundle, reference)

Represents a log entry

  • level – The Python log level of the entry
  • message – A human readable message
  • exception – The exception associated to the entry
  • bundle – The bundle that created the entry
  • reference – The service reference associated to the entry

The bundle that created this entry


The exception associated to this entry


The log level of this entry (Python constant)


The message associated to this entry


The log level of this entry (OSGi constant)


The reference to the service associated to this entry


The timestamp of this entry


LogEntry is a read-only bean which can’t be un-marshalled by Pelix Remote Services transport providers. As a consequence, it is not possible to get the content of a remote log service as is.

Sample Usage

Using the shell is pretty straightforward, as it can be seen in the pelix.shell.log bundle.

import logging

from pelix.ipopo.decorators import ComponentFactory, Requires, Instantiate, \
   Validate, Invalidate
from pelix.misc import LOG_SERVICE, LOG_READER_SERVICE

@Requires("_logger", LOG_SERVICE)
@Requires("_reader", LOG_READER_SERVICE)
class SampleLog(object):
    Provides shell commands to print the content of the log service
    def __init__(self):
        self._logger = None
        self._reader = None

    def _validate(self, context):
        self._logger.log(logging.INFO, "Component validated")

    def _invalidate(self, context):
        self._logger.log(logging.WARNING, "Component invalidated")

    def logged(self, entry):
        print("Got a log:", entry.message, "at level", entry.level)

The log service is provided by a service factory, therefore the components of a same bundle share the same service, and each bundle has a different instance of the logger. The log reader service is a singleton service.

Shell Commands

The pelix.shell.log bundle provides a set of commands in the log shell namespace, to interact with the log services:

Command Description
log Prints the last N entries with level higher than the given one (WARNING by default)
debug Logs a message at DEBUG level
info Logs a message at INFO level
warning Logs a message at WARNING level
warn An alias of the warning command
error Logs a message at ERROR level
$ install pelix.misc.log
Bundle ID: 12
$ start $?
Starting bundle 12 (pelix.misc.log)...
$ install pelix.shell.log
Bundle ID: 13
$ start $?
Starting bundle 13 (pelix.shell.log)...
$ debug "Some debug log"
$ info "..INFO.."
$ warning !!WARN!!
$ error oops
$ log 3
WARNING :: 2017-03-10 12:06:29.131131 :: pelix.shell.log :: !!WARN!!
 ERROR  :: 2017-03-10 12:06:31.884023 :: pelix.shell.log :: oops
$ log info
 INFO   :: 2017-03-10 12:06:26.331350 :: pelix.shell.log :: ..INFO..
WARNING :: 2017-03-10 12:06:29.131131 :: pelix.shell.log :: !!WARN!!
 ERROR  :: 2017-03-10 12:06:31.884023 :: pelix.shell.log :: oops
$ log info 2
WARNING :: 2017-03-10 12:06:29.131131 :: pelix.shell.log :: !!WARN!!
 ERROR  :: 2017-03-10 12:06:31.884023 :: pelix.shell.log :: oops